Philosophy of space exploration
By Henryk Szubinski
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Space – The philosophy of space: Encyclopedia II – Space – The philosophy of space
Space has a range of definitions. One view of space is that it is part of the fundamental structure of the universe, a set of dimensions in which objects are separated and located, have size and shape, and through which they can move. A contrasting view is that space is part of a fundamental abstract mathematical conceptual framework (together with time and number) within which we compare and quantify the distance between objects, their sizes, their shapes, and their speeds. I …
Space: Encyclopedia II – Space – The philosophy of space
Space – The philosophy of space
Main article: Philosophy of space and time
Space has a range of definitions.
One view of space is that it is part of the fundamental structure of the universe, a set of dimensions in which objects are separated and located, have size and shape, and through which they can move.
A contrasting view is that space is part of a fundamental abstract mathematical conceptual framework (together with time and number) within which we compare and quantify the distance between objects, their sizes, their shapes, and their speeds. In this view space does not refer to any kind of entity that is a “container” that objects “move through”.
These opposing views are relevant also to definitions of time. Space is typically described as having three dimensions, and that three numbers are needed to specify the size of any object and/or its location with respect to another location. Modern physics does not treat space and time as independent dimensions, but treats both as features of spacetime â€“ a conception that challenges intuitive notions of distance and time.
An issue of philosophical debate is whether space is an ontological entity itself, or simply a conceptual framework we need to think (and talk) about the world. Another way to frame this is to ask, “Can space itself be measured, or is space part of the measurement system?” The same debate applies also to time, and an important formulation in both areas was given by Immanuel Kant.
In his Critique of Pure Reason, Kant described space as an a priori notion that (together with other a priori notions such as time) allows us to comprehend sense experience. With Kant, neither space nor time are conceived as substances, but rather both are elements of a systematic framework we use to structure our experience. Spatial measurements are used to quantify how far apart objects are, and temporal measurements are used to quantify how far apart events occur.
Similar philosophical questions concerning space include: Is space absolute or purely relational? Does space have one correct geometry, or is the geometry of space just a convention? Historical positions in these debates have been taken by Isaac Newton (space is absolute), Gottfried Leibniz (space is relational), and Henri PoincarÃ© (spatial geometry is a convention). Two important thought-experiments connected with these questions are: Newton’s bucket argument and PoincarÃ©’s sphere-world.
Space – Spaces in psychology
The way in which space is perceived is an area which psychologists first began to study in the middle of the 19th century, and it is now thought by those concerned with such studies to be a distinct branch within psychology. Psychologists analysing the perception of space are concerned with how recognition of an object’s physical appearance or its interactions are perceived.
Other, more specialised topics studied include amodal perception and object permanence. The perception of surroundings is important due to its necessary relevance to survival, especially with regards to hunting and self preservation. “Veridical perception” is the term used to describe the processing of the information provided by the sensory organs to an extent whereby it allows interaction with the actuality of that perceived. It is worth noting that the way we perceive space may not necessarily be representative of the actuality of space.
The term “personal space” refers to the amount of space a person likes to maintain between their own person and that of other people.
Space can also cause anxiety in people, with agoraphobia manifesting itself in some people as a fear of open spaces, and claustrophobia being the fear of enclosed spaces.
Astrophobia is the fear of celestial space,
Kenophobia is the fear of empty spaces
Other related archives
Airspace, Astronomy, Banach space, Cartography, Critique of Pure Reason, Earth, Earth’s atmosphere, Environments, Euclidean space, Geography, Geometry, Gottfried Leibniz, Henri PoincarÃ©, Hilbert space, Immanuel Kant, International System of Units, Isaac Newton, Karman line, Measurement, Metric space, Outer space, Philosophy of space and time, Probability space, Projective space, Public space, Relativistic physics, Space exploration, Spatial planning, Topological space, Topology, Vector space, a priori, abstract, agoraphobia, amodal perception, ancient Greeks, anxiety, architecture, astronomy, atmospheres, bucket argument, celestial body, classical physics, claustrophobia, conceptual, coordinates, dimension, dimensions, distance traveled by light in a vacuum, events, farming, framework, fundamental, hunting, land, manifold, mass, mathematics, measure space, measurement, measurements, meter, metric space, number, object permanence, objects, ontological, outer space, ownership, perception, philosophical, physics, plasma, private property, property, psychology, quantify, science, self preservation, set, spacetime, sphere-world, structure, substances, time, universe, vector space, waters
A knowing gesture or remark is one that shows that you understand something, for example the way that someone is feeling or what they really mean, even though it has not been mentioned directly. adj usu ADJ n
Ron gave her a knowing smile…, Dan exchanged a knowing look with Harry.
♦ knowingly adv
He smiled knowingly.
If you knowingly do something wrong, you do it even though you know it is wrong. adv ADV before v
He repeated that he had never knowingly taken illegal drugs.