force theory: slack and pulling in the universe


on stationary strings and SLack strings

By Henryk Szubinski



if you pull on a rope enough times there is always a resultance that youre pulling something solid

this defines the law of strings and the basis that if youre also pulling through a continuiim such as H2O (f) the resultance of pulling out of it by pulling yourself towards a solid objective by its stationary state.






Figure 2:Traditional view of the Andromeda galaxies, showing only its bright bulge and inner disk and extending out to a projected distance of only about 65,000 light years from the galaxy’s center. Image credit: National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

Discovery of New Stellar Streams in the Andromeda Galaxy Shows Galaxy Formation Through Mergers

January 22, 2010

A team of astronomers from Tohoku University, University of Tokyo, NAOJ, University of California Santa Cruz, and other universities (Note 1) have discovered new stellar streams in a vast region surrounding the disk of Andromeda, in its so-called stellar halo. These stellar or tidal streams (Note 2), which are localized in space and move as a coherent group through the parent galaxy, intensify the density of stars and are remnants of past mergers of relatively small (i.e., dwarf) galaxies. The data from the team’s observations using both Subaru’s Suprime-Cam for photometry and Keck II’s Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) for spectroscopy provided detailed spatial and velocity distributions of the stellar streams and led to this discovery.

Stars spread over the vast reaches of a halo in a big galaxy like the Milky Way or Andromeda Galaxy (Figure 1) are characterized by old age, few elements other than helium and hydrogen (i.e., low metallicities), and high velocities. The exceptional nature of these halo stars, when compared to stars in a galaxy’s disk, reflects the early dynamics and chemical evolution of the galaxy when its appearance differed significantly from what we see today. Consequently, the halo provides important insights into the processes involved in the formation and evolution of a massive galaxy. According to the current theory of galaxy formation, we expect a halo to preserve evidence of past galaxy mergers and/or tidal dissolution in the course of halo formation.

Since the merging and dissolution of a dwarf galaxy typically last for a couple of billion years, these events are occasionally seen in a large galaxy. Given the assumption that past merging events are recorded as stellar streams, identification of these stellar substructures in a halo plays a key role in studying the past history of galaxies. The Andromeda Galaxy is an excellent test case for this purpose: it is the nearest, large spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way Galaxy (Figure 2) and is close enough for individual stars to be studied in great detail.


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