and the force field theory
By Henryk Szubinski
This is a composite image of X-ray (red and green)/optical (purple) for DEM L316. Two supernova remnants (SNRs) are imaged by Chandra. Image is 5.7 arcmin across. RA 05h 47m 15.00s Dec -69º 42′ 25.00″ in Dorado. Observation date: 27 July 2002. Color code: X-ray (Red 0.8-1.5 keV, Green 1.5-8 keV, Blue 0.3-8 keV); Optical (Purple). Instrument: ACIS. Aka: WCD97 Shell A, WCD97 Shell B. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/U.Illinois/R.Williams & Y.-H.Chu; Optical: NOAO/CTIO/U.Illinois/R.Williams & MCELS coll.
October 27, 2010
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–>PASADENA, Calif. — Astronomers have discovered bucket loads of buckyballs in space. They used NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope to find the little carbon spheres throughout our Milky Way galaxy — in the space between stars and around three dying stars. What’s more, Spitzer detected buckyballs around a fourth dying star in a nearby galaxy in staggering quantities — the equivalent in mass to about 15 of our moons.
Buckyballs, also known as fullerenes, are soccer-ball-shaped molecules consisting of 60 linked carbon atoms. They are named for their resemblance to the architect Buckminster Fuller’s geodesic domes, an example of which is found at the entrance to Disney’s Epcot theme park in Orlando, Fla. The miniature spheres were first discovered in a lab on Earth 25 years ago, but it wasn’t until this past July that Spitzer was able to provide the first confirmed proof of their existence in space. At that time, scientists weren’t sure if they had been lucky to find a rare supply, or if perhaps the cosmic balls were all around.
“It turns out that buckyballs are much more common and abundant in the universe than initially thought,” said astronomer Letizia Stanghellini of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. “Spitzer had recently found them in one specific location, but now we see them in other environments. This has implications for the chemistry of life. It’s possible that buckyballs from outer space provided seeds for life on Earth.”
Stanghellini is co-author of a new study appearing online Oct. 28 in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Anibal García-Hernández of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain, is the lead author of the paper. Another Spitzer study about the discovery of buckyballs in space was also recently published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. It was led by Kris Sellgren of Ohio State University, Columbus.
The García-Hernández team found the buckyballs around three dying sun-like stars, called planetary nebulae, in our own Milky Way galaxy. These cloudy objects, made up of material shed from the dying stars, are similar to the one where Spitzer found the first evidence for their existence.
The new research shows that all the planetary nebulae in which buckyballs have been detected are rich in hydrogen. This goes against what researchers thought for decades — they had assumed that, as is the case with making buckyballs in the lab, hydrogen could not be present. The hydrogen, they theorized, would contaminate the carbon, causing it to form chains and other structures rather than the spheres, which contain no hydrogen at all. “We now know that fullerenes and hydrogen coexist in planetary nebulae, which is really important for telling us how they form in space,” said García-Hernández.
García-Hernández and his colleagues also located buckyballs in a planetary nebula within a nearby galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. This was particularly exciting to the researchers, because, in contrast to the planetary nebulae in the Milky Way, the distance to this galaxy is known. Knowing the distance to the source of the buckyballs meant that the astronomers could calculate their quantity — twenty percent of Earth’s mass, or the mass of 15 of our moons.
The other new study, from Sellgren and her team, demonstrates that buckyballs are also present in the space between stars, but not too far away from young solar systems. The cosmic balls may have been formed in a planetary nebula, or perhaps between stars. A feature story about this research is online at http://www.spitzer.caltech.edu/news/1212-feature10-18 .
“It’s exciting to find buckyballs in between stars that are still forming their solar systems, just a comet’s throw away,” Sellgren said. “This could be the link between fullerenes in space and fullerenes in meteorites.”
The implications are far-reaching. Scientists have speculated in the past that buckyballs, which can act like cages for other molecules and atoms, might have carried substances to Earth that kick-started life. Evidence for this theory comes from the fact that buckyballs have been found in meteorites carrying extraterrestial gases.
“Buckyballs are sort of like diamonds with holes in the middle,” said Stanghellini. “They are incredibly stable molecules that are hard to destroy, and they could carry other interesting molecules inside them. We hope to learn more about the important role they likely play in the death and birth of stars and planets, and maybe even life itself.”
The little carbon balls are important in technology research too. They have potential applications in superconducting materials, optical devices, medicines, water purification, armor and more.
basically ; the curved STRING is solid or in a state where matter can eneter and exit so that this will leave some spill overs on the edges defined as the type 2 strings that waveform around the peripherality of the opening as the slice off from the BUKKY BALLS
basic rotations of the types of tubular holes that are regular cylinders as such the BUCKY BALLS are the BLOCKAGE in the system of a ball to cylinder types where the flow of photons is restricted by the types of gravity parameters caused at the peripherality of the circumference of a BUCKY TUBE
Implications are that the general levels of their responsive data relativity on the EBB of a BUCKY BALL as causing a type supernovae pulse wave in expansions
Or as the data on the full values of the force in whgich the levels of the data category for the raio background noise as a type of CYLINDER for particle sequences that aquire a extra molecular component by the BUKKY FACTORY pressure components in a type PISTON MOTION basic to the additions of molecular components
basic componentials of a larger parameter with a BUCKY BALL relation to a open BUCKY BALL and a closed one in relations by the S vector that LINKS them as well as the gravity related flow through a BUCKY BALL in the vertical vector direction as a type of surface modulation of the componnetial sum of a larger sphere as type 1 gears in rotation about the externals or internals of a super sphere with its larger surface area and curvature
This will define the basis of the responsive levels of the types of bukky balls and the related to diamaters in rotation as being a function of the LINK to the alternate hemisphere of the super sphere in its modelation fase
= the basics of the combined radiuses of Sxr
= the super sphere VOLUME / convexity Tan angle x Diameter
as the uncertainty of the rotations about each BUCKY BALLS radius
This will imply that the relativity of the radius = the diameter of the combined
r x rotations angle = diameter in a sum value of its volume