by Henryk Szubinski.



see the >STREAM value on the diagramm..



basics of a question posed in a multiple time frame as the Andromeda galaxy:

1) is relative

2) is interactive

3) exit

basis of the question = I DO NOT KNOW WHAT IT IS:

this is a type 1,2,3 Multi question which can be related to Multiple choice but is somewhat limited in the approach

the basics of turning this format around into a answer for a multiple resultance of the answer to any question:

3(1+x)= problem as  a question

= the answer


.this will work on any level of problem computations.

.basically the force = level of the problems posed by the data on levels 1,2,3

as the values in their increment or angle Tan x = values of the priority in the definitions of the similarity to FORCE by some basics


the usage of a vector into the responsive BREAK = STOP and reverse

as the basics of the data on the inputs of volume interactions this will cause surface concavities that will combine into a super concavity


the basics of the reversals by the problems of the data being the vector certainty in the opposed vector directioon as the general values in which the total system is a detailed concavity much like a natural type surface regularity or irregularity


the data on the abity to derive the 3 (1+x)

as the generalisations of the types of advanced booster supports on the end and start fases of a interaction but where the stop is turned to the start and this then defines 3 set values



z) turned vector  >———–< or as <———————->basis of the positionality of a front and rear multiple



basics of multiple choice data and the LINK answers on the specifics of forces in a galaxy and what they relate to by the universal law of combining the 10 D questions = answers in STREAM short cuts as the basic STREAM TRUNCATIONS:





this then as a uncertainty of the data being the problem values of the general law for the usage of INERTIA ahead of the motion of a inertial object by a x squared law = y Inertial displacement.


False-color map of the density of red giant stars in Andromeda. The stellar density enhancements in Streams E, F, and SW are indicated. The map extends out to a projected distance of 100 kiloparsecs (300,000 light years) from Andromeda’s center. The central inset shows the traditional view of Andromeda’s bright bulge and disk and two inner dwarf satellites.



Multiple choice items consist of a stem and a set of options. The stem is the beginning part of the item that presents the item as a problem to be solved, a question asked of the respondent, or an incomplete statement to be completed, as well as any other relevant information. The options are the possible answers that the examinee can choose from, with the correct answer called the key and the incorrect answers called distractors.[3] Only one answer can be keyed as correct. This contrasts with multiple response items in which more than one answer may be keyed as correct.

Usually, a correct answer earns a set number of points toward the total mark, and an incorrect answer earns nothing. However, tests may also award partial credit for unanswered questions or penalize students for incorrect answers, to discourage guessing. For example, the SAT removes a quarter point from the test taker’s score for an incorrect answer.

For advanced items, such as an applied knowledge item, the stem can consist of multiple parts. The stem can include extended or ancillary material such as a vignette, a case study, a graph, a table, or a detailed description which has multiple elements to it. Anything may be included as long it is necessary to ensure the utmost validity and authenticity to the item. The stem ends with a lead-in question explaining how the respondent must answer. In a medical multiple choice items, a lead-in question may ask “What is the most likely diagnosis?” or “What pathogen is the most likely cause?” in reference to a case study that was previously presented.

[edit] Examples

In the equation 2x + 3 = 4, solve for x.

  1. 4
  2. 10
  3. 0.5
  4. 1.5
  5. 8

Which of the following is the IT capital of India?

  1. Bangalore
  2. Mumbai
  3. Mysore
  4. Mexico

[edit] Advantages

There are several advantages to multiple choice tests. If item writers are well trained and items are quality assured, it can be a very effective assessment technique.[4] If students are instructed on the way in which the item format works and myths surrounding the tests are corrected, they will perform better on the test.[5] On many assessments, reliability has been shown to improve with larger numbers of items on a test, and with good sampling and care over case specificity, overall test reliability can be further increased.[6]

Multiple choice tests often require less time to administer for a given amount of material than would tests requiring written responses. This results in a more comprehensive evaluation of the candidate’s extent of knowledge. Even greater efficiency can be created by the use of online examination delivery software. This increase in efficiency can offset the advantages offered by free-response items. That is, if free-response items provide twice as much information but take four times as long to complete, multiple-choice items present a better measurement tool.

Multiple choice questions lend themselves to the development of objective assessment items, however, without author training, questions can be subjective in nature. Because this style of test does not require a teacher to interpret answers, test-takers are graded purely on their selections, creating a lower likelihood of teacher bias in the results.[7] Factors irrelevant to the assessed material (such as handwriting and clarity of presentation) do not come into play in a multiple choice assessment, and so the candidate is graded purely on their knowledge of the topic. Finally, if test-takers are aware of how to use answer sheets and/or online examination tick boxes, their responses can be relied upon with clarity. Overall, multiple choice tests are the strongest predictors of overall student performance compared with other forms of evaluations, such as in-class participation, case exams, written assignments and simulation games.[8]

 new tidal streams found in Andromeda reveal history of galactic mergers

WASHINGTON D.C.—The Andromeda galaxy has two previously unknown tidal streams, according to data recently taken at the W. M. Keck Observatory and Subaru Telescope. The coherent flows of stars are remnants of dwarf galaxies that Andromeda has been consuming over the last one to two billion years.

The Andromeda galaxy is a unique test bed for studying the formation and evolution of a large galaxy, said Puragra Guhathakurta, of the University of California, Santa Cruz. He leads the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH), an international collaboration conducting a large survey of red giant stars in Andromeda.

Tidal streams are important because they represent a conceptual “link” or “bridge” between the victims and survivors of galactic cannibalism, an intermediate stage between the population of intact dwarf galaxies and the merged or dissolved dwarf galaxies whose stars are now well mixed in the parent galaxy’s halo, he explained.

Guhathakurta announced the discovery of the two new streams at the 215th meeting of the American Astronomical Society held Jan. 4-7, 2010 in Washington D.C.

In the currently favored Lambda Cold Dark Matter paradigm of structure formation in the Universe, the outer halos of large galaxies like the Milky Way galaxy and the neighboring Andromeda galaxy are built up through the merger and dissolution of smaller “dwarf” satellite galaxies. “This process of galactic cannibalism is an integral part of the growth of galaxies,” he said.

Discovery of the two tidal streams supports this idea of galactic cannibalism. Japanese astronomers first observed them when using the Subaru 8-meter telescope and Suprime-Cam camera to map the density of red giant stars in large portions of the Andromeda galaxy, including the previously uncharted north side. This revealed the streams on the northwest (streams E and F) at projected distances of 200,000 and 300,000 light years from Andromeda’s center. The study also confirmed a few previously known streams, including the little-studied diffuse stream to the southwest (stream SW), which lies at a projected distance of 200,000-300,000 light years from Andromeda’s center.

The SPLASH researchers followed up with a spectroscopic survey of several hundred red giant stars in Streams E, F, and SW, using the Keck II 10-meter telescope and DEIMOS spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawai’i. The spectrograph spreads out the light from each star in to a spectrum, which allows astronomers to measure the velocity of the star and distinguish Andromeda red giant stars from foreground stars in the Milky Way. The spectral data confirmed the presence of the groups of Andromeda red giant stars moving with a common velocity.

One of the next steps using the Keck data will be to measure the chemical properties of red giant stars in these newly discovered tidal streams in Andromeda, Guhathakurta said.
Comparing the chemical properties of tidal streams, intact dwarf satellites and the smooth halo will provide details about galaxy cannibalism.

Dwarf galaxies are less effective at recycling chemical elements than massive galaxies. This is partly because the weaker gravity of a dwarf galaxy makes it harder for it to retain the chemically enriched gas that is blown out of massive stars during supernova explosions.  As a result, stars in dwarf galaxies are more anemic (have a smaller fraction of complex elements) than those in the interior of massive galaxies. Moreover, the action of merging with a larger galaxy causes a dwarf galaxy to lose its gas, breaking the chemical cycle altogether.

“The cannibalized victims have had less time to recycle their chemicals than dwarf galaxy survivors, and this should be reflected as a difference between their chemical properties,” Guhathakurta said. “Tidal streams should be somewhere between the victims and the survivors in terms of their chemical properties.”

The W. M. Keck Observatory operates two 10-meter optical/infrared telescopes on the summit of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawai’i and is a scientific partnership of the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA. For more information please call 808.881.3827 or visit http://www.keckobservatory.org.


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